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Xi Jinping’s U.N. Speech

xi at unPresident Xi Jinping made an important speech in which he outlined a better way for the international community to move forward: not with hegemony, but with an eye toward win-win cooperation.

Below is a transcript. An official U.N. copy can be found here.

Working Together to Forge a New Partnership of Win-win Cooperation and Create a Community of Shared Future for Mankind

Statement by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People’s Republic of China
At the General Debate of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly

New York, 28 September 2015

Mr. President, Dear Colleagues,

Seventy years ago, the earlier generation of mankind fought heroically and secured the victory of the World Anti-Fascist War, closing a dark page in the annals of human history. That victory was hard won.

Seventy years ago, the earlier generation of mankind, with vision and foresight, established the United Nations. This universal and most representative and authoritative international organization has carried mankind’s hope for a new future and ushered in a new era of cooperation. It was a pioneering initiative never undertaken before.

Seventy years ago, the earlier generation of mankind pooled together their wisdom and adopted the Charter of the United Nations, laying the cornerstone of the contemporary international order, and establishing the fundamental principles of contemporary international relations. This was an achievement of profound impact.

Mr. President, Dear Colleagues,

On the third of September, the Chinese people, together with the world’s people, solemnly commemorated the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War. As the main theater in the East, China made a national sacrifice of over 35 million casualties in its fight against the majority troops of Japanese militarism. It not only saved itself and its people from subjugation, but also gave strong support to the forces against aggression in the European and Pacific theaters, thus making a historic contribution to the victory of the World Anti-Fascist War.

History is a mirror. Only by drawing lessons from history can the world avoid repeating past calamity. We should view history with awe and human conscience. The past cannot be changed, but the future can be shaped. Bearing history in mind is not to perpetuate hatred. Rather, it is for mankind not to forget its lesson. Remembering history does not mean being obsessed with the past. Rather, in doing so, we aim to create a better future and pass the torch of peace from generation to generation.

Mr. President, Dear Colleagues,

The United Nations has gone through the test of time over the past seven decades. It has witnessed efforts made by all countries to uphold peace, build homeland and pursue cooperation. Having reached a new historical starting point, the United Nations needs to address the central issue of how to better promote world peace and development in the 21st century.

The world is going trough a historical process of accelerated evolution: The sunshine of peace, development and progress will be powerful enough to penetrate the clouds of war, poverty and backwardness. The movement toward a multi-polar world, and the rise of emerging markets and developing countries have become an irresistible trend of history. Economic globalization and the advent of an information age have vastly unleashed and boosted social productive forces. They have both created unprecedented development opportunities and given rise to new threats and: challenges which we must face squarely.

As an ancient Chinese adage goes, “The greatest ideal is to create a world truly shared by all.” Peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom are common values of all mankind and the lofty goals of the United Nations. Yet these goals are far from being achieved, and we must continue our endeavor to meet them. In today’s world, all countries are interdependent and share a common future. We Should renew our commitment to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation, and create a community of shared future for mankind. To achieve this goal, we need to make the following efforts:

—We should build partnerships in which countries treat each other as equals, engage in mutual consultation and show mutual understanding. The principle of sovereign equality underpins the UN Charter. The future of the world must be shaped by all countries. All countries are equals. The big, strong and rich should not bully the small, weak and poor, The principle of sovereignty not only means that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries are inviolable and their internal affairs are not subjected to interference. It also means that all countries’ right to independently choose social systems and development paths should be upheld, and that all countries’ endeavors to promote economic and social development and improve their people’s lives should be respected.

We should be committed to multilateralism and reject unilateralism. We should adopt a new vision of seeking win-win outcomes for all, and reject the outdated mindset that one’s gain means the other’s loss or that the winner shall take all. Consultation is an important form of democracy, and it should also become an important means of exercising contemporary international governance. We should resolve disputes and differences through dialogue and consultation. We should forge a global partnership at both international and regional levels, and embrace a new approach to state-to-state relations, one that features dialogue rather than confrontation, and seeks partnership rather than alliance. Major countries should follow the principles of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation in handling their relations. Big countries should treat small countries as equals, and take a right approach to justice and interests by putting justice before interests.

—We should create a security architecture featuring fairness, justice, joint contribution and shared benefits. In the age of economic globalization, the security of all countries is interlinked and has impact on one another. No country can maintain absolute security with its own effort, and no country can achieve stability out of other countries’ instability. The law of the jungle leaves the weak at the mercy of the strong; it is not the way for countries to conduct their relations. Those who adopt the high-handed approach of using force will find that they are only lifting a rock to drop on their own feet.

We should abandon Cold War mentality in all its manifestation, and foster a new vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. We should give full play to the central role of the United Nations and its Security Council in ending conflict and keeping peace, and adopt the dual approach of seeking peaceful solution to disputes and taking mandatory actions, so as to turn hostility into amity.

We should advance international cooperation in both economic and social fields and take a holistic approach to addressing traditional and non-traditional security threats, so as to prevent conflicts from breaking out in the first place.

—We should promote open, innovative and inclusive development that benefits all. The 2008 international financial crisis has taught us that allowing capital to blindly pursue profit can only create a crisis and that global prosperity cannot be built on the shaky foundation of a market without moral constraints. The growing gap between rich and poor is both unsustainable and unfair. It is important for us to use both the invisible hand and the visible hand to form synergy between market forces and government function and strive to achieve both efficiency and fairness.

Development is meaningful only when it is inclusive and sustainable. To achieve such development requires openness, mutual assistance and win-win cooperation. In the world today, close to 800 million people still live in extreme poverty, nearly six million kids die before the age of five each year and nearly 60 million children are unable to go to school. The just concluded UN Sustainable Development Summit adopted the Post-2015 Development Agenda. We must translate our commitments into actions and work together to ensure that everyone is free from want, has access to development and lives with dignity.

—We should, increase inter-civilization exchanges to promote harmony, inclusiveness and respect for differences. The world is simply more colorful as a result of its cultural diversity. Diversity breeds exchanges, exchanges create integration, and integration makes progress possible.

In their interactions, civilizations must accept their differences. Only through mutual respect, mutual learning and harmonious coexistence can the world maintain its diversity and thrive. Each civilization represents the unique vision and contribution of its people, and no civilization is superior to others. Different civilizations should have dialogue and exchanges instead of trying to exclude or replace each other. The history of mankind is a process of active exchanges, interactions and integration among different civilizations. We should respect all civilizations and treat each other as equals. We should draw inspirations from each other to boost the creative development of human civilization.

—We should build an ecosystem that puts mother nature and green development first. Mankind may utilize nature and even try to transform it. But we are after all a part of nature. We should care for nature and not place ourselves above it. We should reconcile industrial development with nature and pursue harmony between man and nature to achieve sustainable development of the world and the all-round development of man.

To build a sound ecology is vital for mankind’s future. All members of the international community should work together to build a sound global eco-environment. We should respect nature, follow nature’s ways and protect nature. We should firmly pursue green, low-carbon, circular, and sustainable development. China will shoulder its share of responsibility and continue to play its part in this common endeavor. We also urge developed countries to fulfill their historical responsibility, honor their emission reduction commitments and help developing countries mitigate and adapt to climate change.

Mr. President, Dear Colleagues,

The over 1.3 billion and more Chinese people are endeavoring to realize the Chinese dream of great national renewal. The dream of the Chinese people is closely connected with the dreams of other peoples of the world. We cannot realize the Chinese dream without a peaceful international environment, a stable international order and the understanding, support and help from the rest of the world. The realization of the Chinese dream will bring more opportunities to other countries and contribute to global peace and development.

China will continue to participate in building world peace. We are committed to peaceful development. No matter how the international landscape may evolve and how strong it may become, China will never pursue hegemony, expansion or sphere of influence.

China will continue to contribute to global development. We will continue to pursue common development and the win-win strategy of opening up. We are ready to share our development experience and opportunities with other countries and welcome them to board China’s express train of development so that all of us will achieve common development.

China will continue to uphold the international order. We will stay committed to the path of development through cooperation. China was the first country to put its signature on the UN Charter. We will continue to uphold the international order and system underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. China will continue to stand together with other developing countries. We firmly support greater representation and say of developing countries, especially African countries, in the international governance system. China’s vote in the United Nations will always belong to the developing countries.

I wish to take this opportunity to announce China’s decision to establish a 10-year, US$1 billion China-UN peace and development fund to support the UN’s work, advance multilateral cooperation and contribute more to world peace and development. I wish to announce that China will join the new UN Peacekeeping Capability Readiness System and has thus decided to take the lead in setting up a permanent peacekeeping police squad and build a peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops. I also wish to announce that China will provide a total of US$100 million of free military assistance to the African Union in the next five years to support the establishment of the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crisis.

Mr. President, Dear Colleagues,

As the United Nations enters a new decade, let us unite ever more closely to forge a new partnership of win-win cooperation and a community of shared future for mankind. Let the vision of a world free of war and with lasting peace take root in our hearts. Let the aspiration of development, prosperity, fairness and justice spread across the world!

Thank you.

  1. September 30th, 2015 at 21:55 | #1

    Talk is usually cheap but totally different if backed up by a billion dollar. I hope in future, China only need to quote aid in RMB. I always believe that investment in people, especially youth is the best development strategy.

    China has been the largest contributor of peace keeping mission for the UN.

  2. April 7th, 2016 at 20:38 | #2

    President Xi has said many times in many places that a society’s development – encompassing economic, cultural, technological, etc. realms – is the key to eradicating many of the world’s most intractable problems. If there is a modern Chinese ideology, that may be it.

    When China says it, it is cheapened as self-serving – given how well China has done in development over the last few decades.

    But when one sees how development can cure religious intolerance, violence, and radicalism in India … it should raise some eye brows.

    See, e.g. this Huffington Post article.

    KOCHI, India — Back in the summer of 2015, the heart of a Hindu man was transported across Kerala for a Christian patient in dire need of a new one. Funds were raised by a Muslim businessman to pay for the operation and performed by the state’s top heart surgeon: a Christian. The entire state became engrossed as the story unfolded. An Indian Navy helicopter and an ambulance — both dispatched by Kerala’s Chief Minister Oommen Chandy — sped the heart from Thiruvananthapuram to Kochi.

    Kerala is known by the motto “God’s Own Country.” Some may think the moniker is presumptive, but anyone who has seen its forests, its backwaters, its beaches and its bounty of agricultural produce and spices will know it is well deserved.

    Over centuries, people from many different communities and cultures traveled through and lived in Kerala — Jewish and Christian migrants, Arab merchants, European traders and colonizers. The city of Kochi has India’s oldest active synagogue and the oldest European church, both from the sixteenth century.

    But perhaps “God’s Own Country” deserves a new and highly relevant interpretation. Kerala is a symbol of religious coexistence — not simply tolerance — in a world that is struggling with new strains of virulent intolerance and violence. The state has a unique mix of three of the world’s largest religions: roughly 30 percent Muslims, 20 percent Christians and 50 percent Hindus. This split is unique in India — not many other places have such significant populations of both Christians and Muslims living with a not too large majority of Hindus — and perhaps unique even globally.

    Given this mix, the rarity of communal violence is striking; a few small-scale incidents are exceptions to a norm of stability and coexistence. The various religions have evolved to integrate and include their neighboring faiths; for example, the Hindu Edappara Maladevar Nada Temple has a shrine dedicated to Kayamkulam Kochunni, a popular nineteenth-century Muslim “Robin Hood.” Keralites believe themselves to be, first and foremost, Indian Malayalis.

    Some may say this tolerance is no surprise, given the long histories of both Christians and Muslims in Kerala. But one need only look at Eastern Europe or the Middle East, where long-standing bonds within a once diverse community were ruptured within a single generation.

    So what might explain this peaceful and secular coexistence? There are many possible reasons but one striking thing about Kerala that may offer an explanation is its near-universal provision of not just basic needs, but also public and social services. Kerala’s literacy rate — 94 percent — is in the same range as much richer areas like the Gulf, China and Europe. The state’s infant mortality rate is 12 per 1,000 births, compared to 40 per 1,000 births for India as a whole. Kerala’s toilet coverage is almost universal — 97 percent. Earlier this year, Kerala became the first state in India to achieve 100 percent primary education.

    It should also be noted that Kerala has a level of gender parity unmatched by any other state in India and, in fact, many places around the world. Kerala is one of only two Indian states where women outnumber men; all other Indian states have more men — sometimes significantly so. While India as a whole has significantly lower female literacy than male literacy, Kerala’s rates are roughly equal. Kerala also boasts the largest women-empowering network in the country: the Kudumbashree Mission, which boasts over four million members.

    By global standards, Kerala is by no means rich: it has an average income of about $1,300. However, in many important social indicators, it outperforms not just other Indian states, but several other countries with higher per capita incomes — like Malaysia, with an average income of about $11,000, and the UAE, with an average income of about $44,000.

    Kerala’s government has very effectively made the provision of social services one of the central pillars of policy and thus development towards social cohesion. Chief Minister Chandy noted three reasons for his state’s success: education, health and infrastructure. In all of these areas, the government has actively strived to improve services to a global standard, even though he acknowledged that infrastructure in areas such as transportation still had much room for improvement.

    When the basic needs of life — food, water, sanitation, housing, education, healthcare — are denied, resentment against the “other” can fester. Racial, ethnic and religious divisions can be exploited and can erupt into communal violence — in both the developing and developed worlds. Whether it is Myanmar, the Dominican Republic, Paris or Baltimore or elsewhere, resentment between groups is driven, in part, by a feeling that of being denied access to basic economic and social rights. Part of the backlash against immigrants and “foreign” groups is a misdirected “solution” to a real problem: stagnating incomes and lessening job opportunities for the working classes.

    But when social needs are provided on a universal basis, there is less cause for grievances that can be nurtured or exploited. No group feels like they are being left behind. The burden is shared and the work of reducing the drudgery of daily life to uplift people becomes a collective responsibility. There is clear evidence that this focus on needs, and its community-based approach often led by volunteers, is part of what makes Kerala a success.

    This is not to say that Kerala is perfect — it still has a long way to go before it really sees high development measured according to global standards. But it may be a model of how to keep multiethnic and multi-religious communities stable in the long-term.

    Rather than platitudes about multiculturalism or a hope that rising incomes will make everyone forget their cultural roots, an aggressive and universal expansion of social services may instead be the answer to communal tensions. It could make all of India — not just Kerala — “God’s Own Country.”

  3. April 10th, 2016 at 10:57 | #3

    Following up on my previous comment, I guess even “paradise” in India is not much of a paradise.

    Apparently over 100 people died in a explosion at a Hindu temple yesterday.

    See, e.g., http://www.wsj.com/articles/fire-at-indian-temple-kills-more-than-70-people-1460257244.

    By Anant Kala and
    Vibhuti Agarwal
    Updated April 10, 2016 11:50 a.m. ET

    NEW DELHI—More than 100 people were killed and hundreds more hurt when an explosion ripped through a Hindu temple in southern India as thousands of devotees watched fireworks at a religious festival.

    Flames spread around the temple complex after sparks from a pyrotechnic show ignited a cache of other fireworks early Sunday, said officials in Kerala state.

    Sekhar Kuriakose, head of Kerala’s State Emergency Operations Centre, said that as of Sunday night, 110 people were confirmed dead. About 250 were injured, many by flying concrete and other debris, he said.

    Mass deaths at religious celebrations and other gatherings are distressingly regular occurrences in India, where large numbers of people and lax safety standards can be a fatal combination.

    A. Shainamol, a senior official in Kollam, the district that is home to the temple, said festival organizers had “no permission for any kind of fireworks.” Ms. Shainamol, the district collector, pledged strict action against the temple administration and contractors.

    Helicopters were deployed to airlift some of the injured to hospitals. A senior federal government official, who declined to be named, said a team of burn specialists was being dispatched to help local doctors.

  4. April 12th, 2016 at 21:56 | #4

    Following up… turns out the “explosion” is not really about terrorism as some initial stories might have intoned. It looks like it’s local temples not following fire codes..


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